GLOSSARY OF TERMS
All wines contain acetic acid, or vinegar, but usually the
amount is quite small and not perceptible to smell or taste.
At low levels, acetic acid can enhance the character of
a wine, but higher levels of acidic acid are not desirable.
A compound present in all grapes and an essential component
of wine that preserves it, enlivens and shapes its flavors
and helps prolong its aftertaste. There are four major kinds
of acids -- tartaric, malic, lactic and citric--found in
wine. Acid is identifiable by the crisp, sharp character
it imparts to a wine.
This compound is used to raise the acidity of wine increasing
tartness. A mixture of malic, tartaric, and citric acids.
Acid test kits are used to test the acidity in wine.
A check valve, that allows CO2 gas to escape from the container
holding the fermenting, while preventing the outside air,
bacteria and wild yeast from entering the container.
Reduces oxidation in bottled wine when added just prior
Sanitary and easy to use siphon starter for transferring
wine from one vessel to another.
Powdered cleaning agent used to clean winemaking equipment.
Iodine-based solution used to sanitize winemaking equipment.
A fine powdered clay that is used as a fining agent to clarify
Used to drain bottles after rinsing and sanitizing.
Squirts cleaning or sanitizing solution into your bottles.
Sends a concentrated spray of water into your bottles for
rinsing. Uses hose bib type connection. Kitchen faucet adaptors
are available at your local hardware store. There are several
different types of faucet adaptors. Make sure to get one
for your particular style of faucet.
Lowers the acidity of your wine.
Kills bacteria and wild yeasts. Contains potassium metabisulphite.
A glass or plastic vessel used for secondary fermentation
and bulk aging.
Specifically designed brush for cleaning carboys. Tuft tip
is bent at a 90 degree angle.
Rolling cart to simplify the moving of carboys.
Attaches to carboy neck to simplify the moving of carboys.
The process of removing cloudiness in the wine by fining
Removes corks that were accidentally pushed inside a bottle
of wine. A three pronged device inserts into bottle and
For sealing wine bottles. Corks are made from the bark of
cork trees or are produced synthetically.
The process by which yeast converts sugar into alcohol and
A food grade plastic bucket that is used for the primary
fermentation of wine created during the rapid fermentation
The process of removing particles and polishing a wine before
The process of clarifying wine.
Fits into the neck of a carboy and attaches to a drill to
mix ingredients and to degas your wine. The simplest and
most effective way to stir and degas wine.
A floating thermometer used to monitor the temperature of
your must or wine.
Found in skins of grapes, tannin adds astringency to wine.
Tannin occurs naturally in red wines which are fermented
in the skins, but must be added to white wines.
Gum stoppers come solid or drilled with a hole to accommodate
airlocks. Ensures an airtight seal at the neck of your carboy
during fermentation, stabiliization, clarification and bulk
This device is used to measure specific gravity, potential
ETOH and potential sugar of a wine sample. The hydrometer
works by floating in a test jar filled with wine or must.
Measuring specific gravity is important to winemakers, since
it can tell you whether fermentation is complete. Hydrometers
are used in conjunction with thermometers, as specific gravity
of a liquid depends upon its temperature.
Deposits which gather at the bottom of the fermenter during
Used to hold oak chips, elderberries, raisins etc. added
to wine. Simplifies clean-up and racking.
The unfermented juice of grapes.
Used for constructing wood barrels and making oak chips.
The barrels or chip impart flavors and tannin to wines during
the fermentation or aging process.
Wine that has been exposed to air too long, loosing freshness
The measure of acidity or alkalinity.
Wine additive that inhibits bacteria, yeast growth and slows
oxidation. Also used to sanitize wine making equipment.
May cause allergic reactions.
Wine stabilizer that stops fermentation.
Moving wine from one vessel to another leaving the sediment
Unfermented grape sugar in a finished wine.
A fining agent used for clarifying wine.